Emergency Water and Sanitation Kit:
= 4 liters of water per person per 24 hours for three whole days and nights – 12 liters per person in total
- These waters are designated to serves as both drinking and cooking water.
- Tap water (or water from purification and filtration devices) – refresh once every 3 months; mineral water to be refreshed according to their expiration date.
- It is recommended to place bottles on the floor to prevent their fall in case of an earthquake.
= Antibacterial wet wipes or gel (to maintain personal hygiene as substitute for water).
= Disposable dishes and paper towels (to clean and prevent the accumulation of dirty dishes).
= Waste disposal bags (to maintain surroundings cleanliness and prevent health hazards)
= Personal sanitation bags (can be put on a household toilet)
Nursing homes are obligated to hold water inventory for 72 hours according to Ministry of Health guidelines and later on they will receive water as to be coordinated with the local municipality.
Water Recycling and Saving:
The waters distributed in stations are designated for drinking and cooking only. Use them wisely and strictly according to the saving and recycling rules.
Cooking – accumulate the water from cooking which are not used for eating for an additional use.
Washing hands – clean hands with a wet wipe or paper towel.
Washing fruits and vegetables – first clean dry and then wash in a bowel with water. The dirty water should be saved for flushing the toilet.
Washing the dishes – clean the dishes immediately after eating with a wet wipe or paper towel and then wash in a bowel and save the water for flushing the toilet.
In the kitchen – when washing the dishes close the tap between one dish washing to the next
= Operate the washing machine only when it is full
= In the toilet use the two water quantities allocated wisely
= Close the tap while brushing teeth, shaving and soaping
= Adjust laundry quantity to washing plan
= Operate the washing machine in its full capacity
= Use the water wisely for house cleaning and washing
= Leaks and seepage – close all existing taps and look at the apartment's water gauge if the gauge is moving this means the toilet is leaking
= Spill glasses with residues of water or sugarless tea into potted plants instead of the sink
Further information at the Water Authority Website – click here
How to Guarantee the Quality of Drinking Water?
The waters are disinfected using chlorine to guarantee their bacteriological quality, usually by Mekorot co. The use of chlorine to ensure drinking water quality is a controlled use, under strict supervision and it is even required according to the Ministry of Health's regulations and instructions.
Can You Tell Water Quality Just by Their Look, Taste, or Smell?
These three signs are important, however, they should be treated only as initial criteria. It is obvious that you should avoid drinking water which appears unclean, taste funny, or have a bad odor, excluding a very slight smell of chlorine which is added to the water according to the binding standard, in order to ensure its quality.
"Hagihon" operates a water quality testing laboratory in Jerusalem, which was authorized therefore by the national authority for the certification of laboratories and the Ministry of Health, and it monitors the water in accordance with regulations.
How to Carry Out Correct Maintenance of Spare Water Tanks?
Periodic maintenance actions must be taken for the spare tanks which are installed in some of the homes in Jerusalem (including roof top tanks) and this in order to prevent pathogens or bad flavors.
In the absence of bad odors, mosquito larva and the like, which necessitate immediate maintenance actions, maintenance and preventive actions must be carried out at least once a year:
1. Closing the tank or accumulation pool water inlet.
2. Fully emptying the tank or accumulation pool.
3. Once fully emptied close the tank or pool's water outlets.
4. Clean the tank or pool using a hard brush and focus mostly on the corners and areas where the surfaces are not smooth.
5. Wash the tank or pool until all dirt residues have been removed.
6. Disinfection: disinfection to be very carefully carried out once you have established the place of its execution is well ventilated.
The disinfection action includes the following steps:
a) Preparing the disinfection liquid. Add half a cup of household bleach (without added perfumes) to a bucket of water and mix.
b) Apply the disinfection liquid to all tank or pool partitions.
c) Wait between one and two hours.
d) Wash the disinfection liquid and make sure the cleaning water run outside the tank or pool and not into a pipe connected to the household piping.
e) Leave the tank open for several hours until the smell of bleach is gone and it is completely dry.
f) Close tank openings, fill it up with water and open the water outlet valves to the household piping.
Protecting the tank to ensure water quality:
1) Locking the access to the building's rooftop or any other site where the tank is installed, so that unauthorized individuals will not be able to access it.
2) Securing the water tank's lid and the access thereto.
3) The date of the last treatment must be clearly and preeminently marked.
Is it alright and perhaps even desirable to drink water from the tap?
The quality of drinking water supplied by Hagihon is very good and therefore the water is certainly drinkable. However, it should be noted that Hagihon's responsibility is to supply the water up to the building's main gauge and from there onwards the responsibility for properly handling the water is passed to the residents of said building.
If water treatment equipment is installed in the building, said equipment must be maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions and as part thereof the filters installed therein must be cleaned of depressurizing agents according to recommendations herewith.
On site, wash household piping if repairs were made therein and wash water pipes in new homes. In any case where there is a problem in the household system, call a plumber. In houses where these instructions are strictly adhered to water can certainly be drunk from the tap.
In an emergency, should we prefer drinking water from bottles to water from taps? Not necessarily. Hagihon tests water quality daily under the supervision of the Ministry of Health. However, each consumer has his own preferences.
Water bottles have different shelf lives.
There is no doubt that water bottles are an important source of drinking water in an emergency and Hagihon recommends keeping a six pack of bottles per person at home, for use in an emergency. It is important of course to replace said bottles before the expiration date printed on the bottle.
Who can I contact with questions or complaints in the matter of drinking water?
The address to contact is Hagihon's operations center which is open to public service 24 hours a day:
Telephone: 02 5651111 or *2070; Fax: 02 5651193
Mailing address: Hagihon Ltd., P.O.B. 10118, Jerusalem, 91100
Do Chemical Substances Found in the Drinking Water Endanger Our Health?
In addition to the natural chemical substances which drinking water made of, including calcium and magnesium, chemical betterment substances, such as chlorine and fluoride, are added to the water, in accordance with health regulations. The Ministry of Health's drinking water regulations stipulate permitted concentrations of the chemical substances which are in the water and do not endanger the health of those who drink them, and which give drinking water their familiar taste.
What are Coliforms and what is the Significance of Their Presence in Drinking Water?
Coliforms are a type of bacteria found in the intestines of humans and animals. Therefore their presence in drinking water is a criterion for the possible existence of pathogenic bacteria in the water. As part of the daily test conducted by Hagihon, we test for the existence of coliform bacteria in the water in accordance with the Ministry of Health's regulations.
How are Pathogens Removed from Drinking Water?
The bacteria are removed from drinking water by adding a disinfectant substance – meaning chlorine, to the water according to the concentration defined by the Ministry of Health's regulations.
Why does Drinking Water Sometimes have an Aftertaste or Smell?
There are several reasons for this phenomenon which do not endanger public health. However, if you sense a repugnant taste or smell to the water, do not drink it, and call Hagihon's center. When there is fear for the quality of drinking water, the Ministry of Health, together with Hagihon makes sure the public is informed of this via the media.
Tastes and flavors in the drinking water could be caused, among other things, due to the chlorine added to the water, use of new piping or piping which was repaired and not flushed properly. Improper maintenance of private water tanks, household water treatment devices improperly cared for and algae in upper water sources are among the common causes for aftertastes and smells in drinking water.
What is the Source of Petroleum and Oil Tastes and Smells in Drinking Water?
Petroleum and oil tastes in drinking water are created as a result of using plastic household piping installed by private bodies and not washed according to the standard. Hagihon does not use plastic piping to conduct drinking water.
What is "Hard" Water and why is the Water in Jerusalem Defined as Such?
Water hardness is caused by the natural presence of calcium and magnesium in the water, which originate in the limestone of the mountain aquifer. Part of the waters supplied by Mekorot co. to Jerusalem originates in drills made in this region. The presence of these two substances in the water is the source of scale created when the water is heated. "Hard" water does not endanger human health.
Why is there Sometimes Sand in the Water?
While drinking water flow through the pipes, a small quantity of sand sinks to the bottom of the pipes which originates from the drilling. Due to changes in pressures or repair and maintenance works carried out by Hagihon co., a small quantity of sand might be mixed with the running water and reach residential homes. In such cases it is recommended to let the water flow a little. We would also remind private consumers again that the proper maintenance of household devices for drinking water treatment must be observed.
Why is there sometimes a "White Color" to the Drinking Water?
The "white color" originates from the presence of tiny air bubbles in the drinking water, a phenomenon which is caused while water is pumped from one site to the next or from a decompressing process. The air bubbles disappear from drinking water within seconds and have no effect whatsoever on health.
Why Does Drinking Water sometimes have a Yellow, Brown, or Red Hue?
These hues originate in rust which has accumulated in household piping which is made of iron or steel. It is caused mainly in piping which was not in use for a relatively long time and is not toxic. In such cases, let the water flow until these hues disappear. Almost all Hagihon's piping is coated in concrete, which is NOTE a source for rust.
Why does the Water, on Rare Occasions, have a Greenish Hue to it?
In houses with rooftop water storage tanks, which were not properly maintained, algae may grow, which are the source of the greenish hue (you can find detailed instructions on this website on how to properly maintain water storage tanks).
Fluoride in Drinking Water
All questions on the subject of fluoride in drinking water must be referred to the Ministry of Health: Ministry of Health, the Dental Health Laboratory, Dr. Daniel Kushnier.
Telephone: 02 5314871, 02 5314804.
Or Dr. Shlomo Zusman, Telephone: 02 5681451, 02 5681272, 02 5681268.
In this matter you can also contact Mr. Alexander Kushnire, the Public Services of Water and Sewage Authority's representative. Telephone: 02 6595100.
Answers to questions on the matter of adding fluoride to drinking water can also be found on the Mekorot co. website.
Is it Recommended to Use a Household System for Drinking Water Betterment?
The quality of water supplied by Hagihon is very good. The water supplied by the company in Jerusalem complies with all Ministry of Health standards and therefore is certainly drinkable.
You can get information regarding suppliers of water purification systems from the Standards Institute, telephone: 03 6465132. The Standards Institute's website: www.sii.org.il, or with the officer in charge of standardization at the Industry, Trade, and Employment Ministry, telephone: 02 6662295.