The municipal sewer network includes about 1,000 km of transmission lines with diameters between 6″ – 56″, about 950 km of public transmission lines and collectors and 50 km of sewage transporters, including about 37,000 control chambers. The system uses gravity, a flow that is possible as a result of the city’s topographic structure and includes four tunnels for sewage. There are 4 big pumping stations at Armon hanatziv, Neve Yaacov, Pisgat Zeev and Homat Shemuel. These pumping stations are used to pump sewage from low areas, where there is no gravitational infrastructure to regional sewage collectors. In addition, there are several other small pumping chambers throughout the city.
In Mevaseret Zion, there are two large pumping stations in Beit and Yud Alef neighborhoods and a secondary station in Yud Alef neighborhood.
Piping and transmission lines characteristics:
Sewage pipes are made of corrosion and abrasion resistant materials.
The pipes laid in the sewer system are pipes of large diameters that allow, in addition to the flow of liquids, the passage of objects, papers, wipes, soil erosion and so on. The design of the sewage system must also take into account the weather changes and especially the possibility of rainwater infiltration into the sewage system during the winter season.
The type of sewage originated from private and industrial systems and their quality, largely determine how these systems are connected to the urban system.
Because the sewer system is a large and branched system spread over wide areas, and because of the need to separate it from many other systems, unlike other infrastructure systems, its design requires careful coordination with many urban infrastructure entities. Therefore, cooperation is required with the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Health in the planning process of wastewater disposal and discharge to treatment plants.
Refahim collection, Sorek and Kerem tunnel:
The sewage from the two basins west of the watershed, the northwest (Sorek Basin) and the southwest (Refahim Basin), are treated at Nahal Sorek treatment plant. The connection of Refahim basin sewage to Sorek basin sewage is made through a tunnel quarried under Mount Ora, from the Biblical Zoo area to Kerem intersection, where Refahim sewage are combined with Sorek sewage in a single collecting pipe with a diameter of 1.4 meters. In a 2,100-meter-long tunnel, a sewer pipe with a diameter of 1.0 meter was laid. The uniqueness of the tunnel project is in the contribution to the environment where the discharge of sewage to Nahal Refaim was stopped without harming the landscape and the environment. Connecting the basins in this way enabled the construction of the treatment plant in its current location. This saved the construction of a separate sewage treatment plant in Nahal Refaim. As a rule, the work of laying the pipes and building the treatment plant was done while maintaining the landscape as much as possible, and at the end, a landscape restoration was carried out.